无畏之海
无畏之海
作者:章骞
格式:EPUB/MOBI/AZW3
时间:2024-02-25
豆瓣评分:9.3
内容简介

内容简介

第一次世界大战是1914年到1918年期间进行的人类历史上最初一场世界范围的战祸。虽说战事主要发生于欧洲,而且战场主要集中于法国北部、俄国西部以及巴尔干半岛。但是,这场战争则卷入了几乎所有的列强,而且各国动用了其所有力量,包括科学家的研究成果、工程师的创意、产业工人的劳作乃至宣传鼓动家的文笔,这股汇聚着力量的洪流形成了人类历史上最初的,影响更是遍及整个世界的“总体战”。这场战争给全人类带来的灾难和毁灭可谓亘古未有,同时战争还荡涤了整个原有的社会秩序。其影响堪称是决定性的,无论是政治格局,还是人类整个社会结构、文化生活、意识形态等各个领域在这场大战以后,都发生了翻天覆地的变化。

第一次世界大战是在传统军事思想和体系下展开的,然而由于军事技术的腾飞而造成的巨大破坏力,使得整个战争却以付出当初根本无法预料的牺牲和浩劫而结束的。在长达四年的战争期间,推定死亡人数为战斗人员阵亡900万,平民遇难1000万,2000多万人负伤,战争造成了严重的经济损失,据估计损失了当时币值1700亿美元的巨额财富。

在大战期间的海上,战事由海面开始全面向水下和空中扩展,成了传统意义上单纯水面舰艇决战的最后舞台。无论在北海的寒波和迷雾中破浪前进的巨大舰队,排开长达十余公里纵列倾吐炮火的壮美画面;还是秉承超人的智慧和勇气,驾驶设备贫弱的潜艇长驱敌巢挑战钢铁巨舰那种惊心动魄之情;乃至伪装成普通商船,远离故土千万里进行破交战那些伪装巡洋舰的骑士风范,却构成了第一次世界大战中海战的一幅又一幅传奇的画面。当然,由于无限制潜艇战的肆虐,炮击不设防港口的舰队,盲目轰炸市镇的飞艇,却又是那么鄙夷而让人不齿。那些由于国力急遽强盛而企图挑战世界秩序的狂妄君主,那些造成无谓牺牲的拙劣指挥,也都值得让后人发以深思。

这便是第一次世界大战期间的大海。

然而,对于这样一场处于世界海战史关键阶段的世纪海战,迄今为止,国内却始终难寻一部能反映其全貌的著作。且不说原创,即便是翻译作品也寥寥无几,且也基本上局限于日德兰海战、施佩舰队等个别内容的叙述。对达达尼尔海峡战役以反映陆上战斗为多,偶尔出现的一些对潜艇战、海上破交战的介绍,也往往停留在局部的描摹。即便在国外,从全球视野对第一次世界大战的海战进行全面描述的作品也并不多见。

这次山东画报出版社所出版的《无畏之海:第一次世界大战海战全史》却可谓是填补了这个空白,使得我们可以探寻这片被无畏舰那种业已逝去的钢铁巨兽所主宰之海洋。

第一次世界大战的海战,是以北海为主要战场,烽火遍及世界各地。因此,书中除了北海主战场之外,对于其他海域的战争进行了相应的介绍。此外,虽然名曰“海战史”,但是书中也有关于东非丛林湖泊中的“湖战”,以及多瑙河、美索不达米亚的“河战”,当然还有诞生后不久海军航空兵的“空战”。有时,也会遇到不得不涉及陆地战场的内容,在这个情况下,书中也会进行极为简单的相关介绍。总之希望能够给予人们对于当时整个海军作战具有较为全面完整的认识。

更加发人深思的,书中我们还能探寻到了另一种“无畏”。在寒冷的英吉利海峡击沉一艘美国驱逐舰后,德国U-53号潜艇在罗泽艇长的指挥下勇敢地浮出水面。他们不但收容了两名重伤伤员,还为生还者留下食物、淡水和药品,甚至不顾风险,向附近的英国反潜舰队基地发出标明详细方位的求救信号。这才是真正的无畏,它来源于军人的荣誉,来源于人类高贵的良知。

不过遗憾的是,也正是第一次世界大战的战火,完全揭开了“总体战”的封印。那种混淆了前线与后方,混淆了军人和平民的作战样式完全释放出了深藏于人类灵魂深处的邪恶。那种真正的无畏精神,却逐渐成为西去的黄鹤。

这样的精神,除了上面的战例之外,还是时常地闪烁在第一次世界大战的海上战场。因此,在描述钢铁无畏舰鏖战的同时,我们还可以深深地感悟那种至高的无畏精神。

在卷尾,为了使读者能够了解不同战场在同一时间的进程,笔者在正文之后还整理出了较为详尽的年表。而且还将战争期间损失的所有主要舰艇成表列出。这些舰艇包括了1914年7月28日到1918年11月11日之间损失的雷击舰以上舰艇以及潜艇。这些损失既包括由于战争原因,也包括由于事故、灾难等其他原因。其中也有损失后打捞起再次使用的,对此会在注释中加以说明。另外,中立国方面损失的舰艇也一并列入表中。可见本书具有的资料性也是值得关注的。

作者简介

章骞,字德淳,生于上海。自幼喜好海军,然而仅限纸上论兵而以“好龙公”自诩。小学之时偶有亲友携《简氏年鉴》归国,如获至宝,便借阅数月抄录并勾画成数册自珍。大学攻图书馆情报专业,后得东渡十四载。在修得学位之余,大肆搜猎文献,归国时未携分文,唯裹书奁数十还乡。就职上海图书馆,现为中日两国图书馆学会会员、上海市日本学会以及中国海军史研究会。并担任上海市侨界知识分子联谊会理事,上海市长宁区海外联谊会理事。

最初以“寶劍橡葉騎士”之名涉足网络。后于《国际展望》、《军事历史》、《现代舰船》、《舰船知识》以及《战争史研究》等刊发文数十,并作为特约顾问为引进日本《世界舰船》杂志的中文版作为监修工作,还曾与其他作者合作出版《日本联合舰队内幕》、《世界海军史探奇》两书,个人文集《艨艟夜谭》亦于2012年付梓,其文大有为大舰巨炮主义招魂之嫌。




Content introduction

World War I was the first worldwide war in human history, fought from 1914 to 1918. Although the fighting took place mainly in Europe, the battlefields were concentrated in northern France, western Russia, and the Balkans. However, this war involved almost all the powers, and the countries used all their forces, including the research results of scientists, engineers, industrial workers and even the writing of propaganda agitators, this torrent of power formed the first in human history, the impact is the entire world "general war." The disaster and destruction brought to mankind by this war can be described as unprecedented in history, and the war also cleaned up the entire original social order. Its influence is decisive, whether it is the political pattern, or the entire social structure of mankind, cultural life, ideology and other fields after the war, earth-shaking changes have taken place.

The First World War was launched under the traditional military thought and system, but due to the huge destructive power caused by the take-off of military technology, the whole war ended with sacrifices and havoc that could not be expected at the time. During the four years of war, the presumed death toll was 9 million combatants killed, 10 million civilians killed, more than 20 million wounded, and the war took a heavy economic toll, costing an estimated $170 billion in wealth at the time.

In the sea during the Great War, the war began from the sea to the underwater and air, and became the final stage of the traditional final battle of pure surface ships. Whether in the North Sea in the cold waves and fog through the waves of the huge fleet, lined up for more than 10 kilometers to dump the magnificent picture of artillery; Or adhering to the superhuman wisdom and courage, driving the submarine with poor equipment to challenge the enemy nest of steel giant ship that thrilling feeling; Even disguised as ordinary merchant ships, thousands of miles away from home, the chivalry of those camouflaged cruisers formed one legendary picture after another of the naval battles of the First World War. Of course, with the ravages of unrestricted submarine warfare, fleets shelling undefended harbours and airships blindly bombing towns are so despised. Those arrogant monarchs who tried to challenge the world order because of the rapid strength of their national power, and those poor commands that caused unnecessary sacrifices, are also worthy of reflection for future generations.

This was the sea during the First World War.

However, for such a century of naval war at a critical stage in the history of world naval war, so far, it is always difficult to find a work that can reflect its full picture. There are few translations, let alone originals, and they are largely limited to individual narratives such as the Battle of Jutland and the Spee Fleet. The Dardanelles campaign mainly reflects the land battles, and the occasional introduction to submarine warfare and naval warfare often stays in the local description. Even abroad, comprehensive depictions of the naval battles of the First World War from a global perspective are rare.

"Fearless Sea: A Complete History of World War I Naval Warfare," published by Shandong Pictorial Press, fills this gap, allowing us to explore the sea dominated by the dreadnoughts, the steel behemoths that have passed away.

The naval battles of the First World War took the North Sea as the main battlefield, and the flames spread all over the world. Therefore, in addition to the main battlefield of the North Sea, the book gives a corresponding introduction to the war in other seas. In addition, although it is called a History of Naval Warfare, there are also "lake wars" in the jungle lakes of East Africa, "river wars" in the Danube, Mesopotamia, and, of course, the "air wars" of naval aviation shortly after its birth. Sometimes, it is necessary to deal with the content of the land battlefield, and in this case, the book will give a very simple introduction. In short, I hope to give people a more comprehensive and complete understanding of the entire naval operation at that time.

More thought-provoking, we can also explore another kind of "fearlessness" in the book. After sinking an American destroyer in the cold English Channel, the German submarine U-53 bravely surfaced under the command of Captain Roser. They not only took in two seriously wounded, but also left food, fresh water and medicine for the survivors, and even sent a distress signal with detailed location to the nearby base of the British anti-submarine fleet, despite the risks. This is the true fearlessness, it comes from the honor of the military, from the noble conscience of mankind.

But unfortunately, it was also the flames of the First World War that completely lifted the seal of "total war". A pattern of warfare that confuses front and rear, soldier and civilian, fully unleashes the evil that lies deep within the human soul. That kind of real fearless spirit, but gradually become the west yellow crane.

Such a spirit, in addition to the examples mentioned above, was often seen in the maritime battlefields of the First World War. Therefore, while describing the fierce battle of the steel dreadnoughts, we can also deeply understand the supreme spirit of fearlessness.

At the end of the volume, in order to enable readers to understand the progress of different battlefields at the same time, the author also sorted out a more detailed chronology after the main text. It also lists all the major ships lost during the war. These included ships and submarines lost between 28 July 1914 and 11 November 1918. These losses are due to war as well as accidents, disasters and other causes. There are also those that are salvaged after loss and used again, which will be explained in the notes. In addition, ships lost by neutral countries are also included in the table. It can be seen that the information of this book is also worthy of attention.

About the author

Zhang Qian, styled Dechun, was born in Shanghai. Since childhood, he liked the navy, but only on paper and called himself a "good dragon Lord". When I was in primary school, some friends and relatives brought Jane's Yearbook back to China, and when they found a treasure, they borrowed it for several months and copied it and sketched it into several volumes. College library information major, after 14 years to the east. After obtaining a degree, he searched extensively for literature, and returned home without any money, only to return dozens of books. He is currently a member of the Library Association of China and Japan, the Shanghai Japanese Society and the Chinese Naval History Research Association. He also serves as the director of Shanghai Overseas Chinese Intellectuals Association and Shanghai Changning District Overseas Intellectuals Association.

First set foot on the Internet as "Sword Oak Leaf Knight". Later, he published dozens of articles in "International Outlook", "Military History", "Modern Ships", "Ship Knowledge" and "War History Research", and worked as a special consultant to introduce the Chinese version of Japan's "World Ships" magazine as a supervision and maintenance work. He also collaborated with other authors to publish two books, "Inside the Japanese Joint Fleet" and "World Naval History Exploration". A personal collection, 艨艟 Night Tales, was also published in 2012, which is suspected of evoking the spirit of big ships and big guns.

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